English Grammatical Terms
(PG = Prescriptive Grammar — DG = Descriptive Grammar)
(GL = Grammatical Lingo — OB = Obtuse — NG = Not Grammatical)
- Abbreviation — [DG] The Term “Abbreviation” is used to refer to a shortened or contracted form of a Word or Phrase, used to represent the WHOLE Word or Phrase. This is done by utilizing the omission of certain Letters; By the substitution of Letters; or by the use of the initial Letters of each Word in a Phrase.
Also included in the classification of “Abbreviation”, are symbols such as: +, =, @, &, and many many more. (Although this is not commonly known, or logically thought about.)
- See Also: “Acronym”
- Academic Question — [NG] The Term “Academic Question” is not a Grammatical Term. It is a Rhetorical Term which is used to refer to refer to a Question which is of no real importance… which is actually quite hilarious when you think about how important people in the field of Academics think of themselves to be. 😆
- Active Form — [DG] The Term “Active Form” is used to refer to the form that a Sentence is in. In an “Active Sentence”, or when the Sentence is in the “Active Form” — the focus of the Sentence is on the Subject which is “doing” the Action of the Verb.
Active Form: “The Teacher explained the Grammatical Term very well.”
Passive Form: “The Grammatical Term was explained very well.”
- Active Voice — [GL & OB] The Term “Active Voice” — in Traditional Grammar — is Stupid & Obtuse because it has NOTHING to do with the “Voice” and the use of that Word as part of the Term does NOT help the student to comprehend what it means.
- See Also: “Active Form”
- Adjective — [PG] The Term “Adjective” One of the Nine Grammatical Units in The Grammar Of The Common Tongue. Adjectives are Words that describe other Words — usually Nouns, but also other Adjectives. Although there is a generally agreed-upon standard for the “Types” of Adjectives in Traditional Grammar — that standard and it’s terms are con-fusing & Obtuse.
In The The Grammar Of The Common Tongue — the types of Adjectives are those that are/or describe: 1. Quantity and/or Determination 2. Opinion 3. Size and/or Measurement 4. Physical Shape 5. Quality and/or Condition 6. Age 7. Color 8. Origin 9. Material 10. Purpose of Use and/or Being.
When there is more than one Adjective used to describe something in a Sentence — the order of Adjectives is the same as the numbering above.
- Adjective-Clause — [PG] The Term “Adjective-Clause” is the The Common Tongue Grammatical Term for what is traditionally called an “Adjectival Clause” — which is a “good Term“, but the “-al” Suffix does not work with the other Grammatical Units which also have Clause forms.
And since I don’t want to hurt any of their feelings — I just use “Adjective-Clause”. 😉
- Blog Post — coming soon!
- Grammar Lesson — coming soon!
- Video Lesson — coming soon!
- See Also: “Adjective-Phrase”
- Adjunct — [OB] Term “Adjunct” — used alone in Traditional Grammar — is NOT Correct, even if it is listed as a Grammatical Term. This is because the Word “Adjunct” is an Adjective. So using this Term, as a singular Term; as an Abstract Noun — with no other Term to say what exactly is “Adjunct”, is wrong.
- Adjunct Adverbial — [DG & OB] The Term “Adjunct Adverbial” is used — in Traditional Grammar — to refer to any so-called “Adverbial” (also an Obtuse, Stupid, & Completely NOT-necessary Grammatical Term) which is added to a Sentence but does not add necessary information to the sentence.
In Traditional Grammar this Term — along with “Adjunct Clause” & “Adjunct Phrase” are all categorized under the “blanket term”: “Adjunct Adverbial”, or simply “Adjunct”. Both of-which Terms are Stupid & Obtuse. The second actually being Grammatically incorrect (which is not a good idea for an actual Grammatical Term!) 😆
Furthermore — in researching this Term — I also saw it described as an “Adverbial Adjunct” — which is DOUBLY wrong because by reversing the Adjective and Noun in the Term changes the focus is of the Term AND it’s Meaning.
And although the two Terms are similar in meaning — they are NOT the same thing! (Yet another example of why those who are supposedly “authorities” of Traditional Grammar are — more often than not — complete idiots… But they try hard. Which is important for them… but not for us. We only appreciate people who know what they are doing when they profess to be “experts.) 😎
- See Also: “Adjunct”
- Adverb — [PG] The Term “Adverb” is one of the Nine Grammatical Units in The Grammar Of The Common Tongue. Adverbs (as the name suggests) “Adds to the Verb“ by describing HOW the Verb is: performed, or is. In this way they function very-much like Adjectives. Regular Adverbs are formed by adding The “-ly” Suffix to the end of Adjectives. But there are some Irregular Adverbs that do not have The “-ly” Suffix.
As with anything in Traditional Grammar, there is only a rough agreement on the actual number of the different Types Of Adverbs. There are between 4 or 5 that are common to all lists. But then there are those who say there are 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or even as many as 14 different Types Of Adverbs in total! This is because most of these so-called “authorities” do not use logic in their interpretation. They only repeat what they have been told — which proves that they are NOT authorities.
In The Grammar Of The Common Tongue — there are only 5 types of Adverbs. The Five Main Types Of Adverbs Are… Adverbs of: Degree, Frequency, Manner, Place, & Time.
- See Also: “Irregular Adverb”
- Adverbial — [OB] The Term “Adverbial” is a Stupid & Obtuse Term in Traditional Grammar. It is Obtuse because it is Grammatically Incorrect in the way that it is used. The “-al” Suffix of the Word makes the Term itself an Adjective. However — it is used as a Noun.
In Traditional Grammar it is said that “Adverbials” are Adverbs, Clauses, & Phrases that Function As an Adverb. But broadly classifying all of them as “Adverbials” — besides being WRONG — also does not help in any way. There are already correct Terms for each of those things. There-fore — this Term is Grammatical Dross.
- Affix — [DG & OB] The Term “Affix” is used to refer to both “Prefixes” & “Suffixes” together. Therefore — it is only ever useful in talking ABOUT Grammar — and not in actually Learning and Using the Language itself.
The Term literally means: That which is “Affixed” (attached to) something else. And since there are only two “Affixes” (Prefixes & Suffixes) — it does not serve us to have yet another Grammatical Term which is ONLY used to describe the only two types of this Grammatical Term.
- Agreement — [DG & OB] The Term “Agreement” is used to refer to when the various forms of Words (Noun, Verbs, Pronouns, Verbs, etc.) are in their proper form to be working with other Words in the Sentence — based on the Time that the Sentence is in, and other various “Cases”.
This Term is most-often used in the negative form by teachers, in order to explain why a student’s Sentence is not correct. Because of this, the Term is almost never used by the learner of English, and is only used by teachers, or those who study English Grammar.
An English Teacher May Say: “This is not correct because the Verb is not in agreement / does not agree with the Noun. Since the Pronoun is ‘He’ — then the Verb ‘to be’ should not be in the form of ‘am’ — but in the form of ‘is’.”
So the only use of this Term is in talking ABOUT Grammar. When use the Term to speak about the Grammatical Units / Devices in the Sentence that “work together” — we say that they “Agree With” each other, or are “In Agreement”.
For Example: If the Subject or Object in a Sentence (which is a Noun, Noun-Phrase, or Phrasal-Noun) is Plural — then the Verb must “Agree With” that Plural Noun form — usually by having an “-s” Suffix. But the Verb form must also “Agree With” the Time in-which the action happens (Verb-Tense).
So “Agreement” is the Term used to refer to the way that parts of a Sentence “work with” and are “connected to” each other. For the Sentence to be correct, they must “Agree”. If they do not “Agree” or “Have Agreement”, then the Sentence is NOT correct.
- Ambi-Transitive Verb — [DG] The Term “Ambi-Transitive Verb” is used to refer to any Verb which can be either Transitive or Intransitive, without changing it’s form.
- American-English — [NG] The Term “American-English” is not a Grammatical Term. It is English Industry Terminology which used to refer to the Dialect of English that is spoken in The United States Of America.
However — the idea behind this Term is Stupid & Obtuse, as there are MANY different Dialects that are considered to be “American-English” — even within America, alone! This is also true of literally EVERY every English-speaking country around The World.
The people from the different States in The United States Of America do NOT sound like each other. The Pronunciation between the Northern & Southern States — as well as the Eastern & Western States — is VERY different. And there are some Grammatical problems with “American-English” as well. Such as thinking that the use of the Word “That”, as-well-as the Comma is sometimes optional! And almost COMPLETELY ignoring The Present Perfect Tenses!
There are similar problems with British-English as well. The people from the different countries of Great Britain do not sound like each other. But they may have similar qualities — like ignoring: The Pronunciation of The Letter “R” at the end of Words — the use of the Particle “To” in-front-of many Verbs — and the use of the Definite or Indefinite Article in-front-of many Nouns (like “Hospital”) which absolutely SHOULD have an Article.
So this is yet ANOTHER reason for the formation of The Common Tongue. To eliminate ALL of these discrepancies and provide The World with a form of the so-called “English” Language (which is quite different than the “English” that is spoken in England — but) which respects ALL Languages for their contributions TO English, as-well-as the MANY different Dialects around The World — and then provides The ENTIRE World with the *best example for all.
*(though sounding similar to the claims made about “Common Core Education” — The Common Tongue is DRASTICALLY different, because it is not about making things “Easier” & “Inclusive” for everyone. That is a myth and a lie. It is about being Correct — while still being **Simple & Elegant. **[“Simple” & “Easy” are not the same thing. However The Common Tongue DOES make it MUCH Easier to learn English… Not by “dumbing it down”… But by creating a Logical & Correct System — making those who learn it SMARTER… The “Common Core” does exactly the opposite.] And finally — the Word “best” [used above] is an opinion, unless it is based on defining boundaries, limitations and/or desired qualities & outcomes. The reason that The Common Tongue is the “best” is based on the qualities and outcome of being Simple, Elegant, & most-easily Comprehended — while also being the easiest to Learn & Communicate with.)
- See Also: “British-English”
- Analogy — [DG] The Term “Analogy” is not a Grammatical Term. It is a Rhetorical Term which is used as a way of describing something by comparing it to something else which has very similar qualities or characteristics. It is used to “Illustrate” one’s point when the idea is not immediately clear to the one being spoken to, or addressed in a piece of writing.
- Apodosis — [DG & OB] The Term “Apodosis” is a Grammatical Term which is used to refer to the part of a Conditional Sentence which is the actual condition.
“If I have to explain another one of these USELESS Grammatical Terms,…” is the “Apodosis”.
This Term is — however — completely useless to anyone besides those who need to take an exam where-in “Apodosis” is the subject of one of the questions. Knowing this Term will not, in any way, help you to Learn or Communicate better in English. That is why it is Stupid & Obtuse, and therefore Grammatical Dross.
- Apostrophe — [PG] The Term “Apostrophe” is a Grammatical Term which is used to refer to a Symbol Of Punctuation which is used to indicate the Possessive Form of a Noun, or to make a Contraction of two Words. An Apostrophe looks like this. [ ‘ ]
hey are also sometimes used to substitute Quotation Marks around a Word, Term, or Phrase which is supposed to represent something that someone said, or to refer to an specific Name or un-common Term, but which is already inside of quoted text:
“One quote that I always live by is: ‘Good Enough is Never Good Enough’. And that’s why I can’t stand living in Eastern Europe — where everyone has a ‘Good Enough’ attitude. And because of this — most of The Balkans are a perfect example of the term ‘Entropy’, because only doing things to be ‘Good Enough’ means that they are not done as they SHOULD be. But then — because everyone follows what everyone else is doing — that lower quality way of doing things becomes the new standard. And THEN — with that same ‘Good Enough’ attitude further applied — people do things even worse than the previous shitty ‘Good Enough’ standard — until, very rapidly, the whole place has become a complete shit-hole and only gets worse!“
In the above example. The entire Statement is a Quote. Therefore it is in Quotation Marks. But then the Phrase “Good Enough Is Never Good Enough” — which would normally be in Quotation Marks to show that it is an Expression — is surrounded by Apostrophes, because the entire Statement is already IN Quotation Marks.
And finally — the Term “Entropy” is in Quotation Marks to indicate that this is the Proper Name of the Term which is being referred-to — in case the person being spoken to with this entire Statement had never heard of “Entropy” before.
Any use of Apostrophes — in-place-of Quotation Marks when they are NOT already WITHIN Quotation Marks is wrong… Even if it is becoming more Common. But this is the fault of the computer industry. Because Quotation Marks are part of Coding Languages — so it is often not possible to use Quotation Marks to name files. And so now they are fucking up the English Language.
- See Also: “Quotation Marks”
- Argument — [NG] The Term “Argument” is not a Grammatical Term. In Common Usage — most people comprehend the Word “Argument” as meaning: “A heated verbal disagreement”. However — The Term “Argument” is a Rhetorical Term which is used to refer to a fact, set of facts, or at-least an opinion about something which one uses to support an idea, or to dispute another opposing idea.
- Article — [PG] The Term “Article” is used to refer to one of the Eight Grammatical Units in The Common Tongue. They basically function as a very specific type of Adjective, but there are only 3 Articles in The English Language, and no other Grammatical Unit can function as an Article. But because they basically function as a type of Adjective, they are not a Base Grammatical Unit.
The The Three Articles Are: “A”, “An”, & “The”
The Articles: “A” & “An” are what is called “Indefinite Articles”. This is because they are used to refer to one thing which is not “Definite”; not specific. It could be any of that particular thing. A ball is just one of ANY of the balls in existence. An apple is just one apple of ALL apples in existence.
The Article: “A” appears before Nouns that begin with a Consonant or Consonant Sound. The letter “U” — like in the Word “University” starts with the Consonant Letter “Y” sound. So we say “A University” but “An Umbrella”.
The Article: “An” appears before Nouns that begin with a Vowel or Vowel Sound. The letter “H” is sometimes silent in English — like in the Word “Hour”. Therefore the Word starts with the sound of the following Vowel. So we say “An Hour”, but “A Helicopter”.
The Article: “The” is what is called the “Definite Article”. This is because it refers to a particular specific one, and there can be no other one of that particular thing. To use it as it’s own example… “The Definite Article” is the ONLY Definite Article. Or — “I don’t want any ball, I want the ball that I got for my birthday.” “I don’t want any apple, I want the apple that I picked from the tree this morning.”
- Attributive Adjective — [DG] The Term “Attributive Adjective” is used to refer to an Adjective that is in the “Standard” placement BEFORE The Subject. It is an “Attribute” of the Noun. This is as opposed to The Predicative Adjective which is part of the “Predicate” of a Sentence and comes AFTER The Subject that it describes.
The Best TOEFL Preparation On-Line — Attributive Adjective
The On-line TOEFL Preparation That Is The Best — Predicative Adjective
- See Also: “Predicative Adjective”
- Auxiliary Verb — [PG] The Term “Auxiliary Verb” is used to refer to a Verb that is “Auxiliary” to the Main Verb — usually in it’s Infinitive or Participle form.
Other types of Auxiliary Verbs are those that add positive or negative confirmation or question of something.
“Do you like Dubrovnik?” — “I do like Dubrovnik!” — “But I don’t like all the Game of Thrones Memorabilia everywhere.”
All Modal Verbs are specific types of Auxiliary Verbs.
- Axiom — [NG] The Term “Axiom” is not a Grammatical Term. This is a Lexical Term which is used to refer to A seemingly self-evident or necessary truth which is based on assumption. It is a principle or proposition which cannot actually be proven or disproven.
As such — an axiom — used to refer to a statement — is one that a person can base other ideas or beliefs upon. A personal Axiom is a statement that one believes-in so strongly that he or she may base their life around.
For Example: “A person can achieve anything that they put their mind to.” or similarly “That which one focuses upon the most, will essentially and eventually come true.”
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