English Grammatical Terms
(PG = Prescriptive Grammar — DG = Descriptive Grammar)
(GL = Grammatical Lingo — OB = Obtuse — NG = Not Grammatical)
- I-Schwa — [DG] This a Term that I (“The Teacher” from GiveMeSomeEnglish!!!) created to describe a one of The THREE different pronunciations of “The Schwa Sound”.
The “I-Schwa” is used to refer to when “The Schwa Sound” is pronounced almost like “The Short Letter I” — as in almost ANY Word which starts with the “Ex-“ Prefix. In The Common Tongue — these Words are almost always pronounced with more of a “Short I” sound, rather than a “Short E” sound. Although — since the sound is cut short so much, it is closer to a “Schwa Sound”, than a “Short I” sound.
Thus the Term: “I-Schwa”
- Idiom — [NG & OB] The Term “Idiom” is not a Grammatical Term in either Traditional Grammar, or The Grammar Of The Common Tongue. It is a Lexical Term in Traditional Grammar.
However — since there is actually No Such Thing as an “Idiom” — which is ONLY an “Idiom”. AND, since almost no one can actually comprehend or correctly identify a Term or Phrase which actually IS “Idiomatic” — as opposed to being Metaphorical or Slang — then the Term “Idiom” is not used in The Grammar Of The Common Tongue.
It is only classified as one of the “Word-Classes” of Traditional Grammar which is Obtuse & Stupid because of it’s wrong Usage almost 100% of the time. Therefore — it is also (in Traditional Grammar) Grammatical Lingo.
- Idiomatic — [NG] The Term “Idiomatic” — alone — is not a Grammatical Term. Is is an Adjective which is used to refer to any Word, Term, Name, Phrase, or Phrasal which has no logical meaning based-upon the definition of the Words themselves. Or the Word, Term, etc. — has a different meaning than the Words, by their true definition — but which is NOT Metaphorical.
This second part of the description above is the part that ALMOST EVERYONE (including the people who write the dictionaries) get WRONG! This is the biggest mistake that people make when referring to anything which they stupidly refer-to as an “Idiom”. They are ALMOST ALWAYS Metaphorical Expressions.
The common “understanding” is that an “Idiom” is any group of Words that — when combined — has a different meaning than the Words themselves. So if they say about someone that someone is “Bat-Shit Crazy!” — They say that the Phrasal-Adjective “Bat-Shit Crazy” is an “Idiom”.
It is not. It is not even “Idiomatic”. “Bat-Shit Crazy” is Metaphorical. The Metaphor is that of people who harvest “Bat Guano” (Guano is feces… shit). It does not happen as much in modern times, but people who used to harvest Bat Guano, also used to develop a condition of going insane due to breathing the dust from Bat Guano (Bat Shit). So they literally went “Crazy” from the “Bat Shit”.
So to say that someone is “Bat-Shit Crazy” is to Metaphorically compare them to a person who has gone “Crazy” from inhaling “Bat-Shit”. Therefore — it is NOT “Idiomatic”.
- Imperative Statement — [DG] The Term “Imperative Statement” is considered to be exactly the same thing as an “Imperative Sentence”. But it is not. This is because, a Statement can be less than one Sentence, or it can be made-up-of multiple Sentence. So there may be multiple “Imperative Sentences” in an “Imperative Statement”. Or — the Statement could contain one “Imperative Sentence”, as-well-as other Sentences which are descriptions, explanations, or even Questions.
- See Also: Imperative Sentence
- Indefinite Adjective — [DG] The Term “Indefinite Adjective” is used to refer to Adjectives which are usually “Quantitative” but are non-specific.
But because of the fact that these are usually just another type of “Quantitative Adjective” — this Term is Stupid & Obtuse. It will not help you to Comprehend or Communicate in English in any way. It will only help you to know this if you have a test on-which you need to know what this Type Of Adjective is.
Some So-Called Indefinite Adjectives: “Some”, “Any”, “Many”, “A Lot Of”, etc.
- See Also: “Types Of Adjectives”
- Indefinite Article — [PG] The Term “Indefinite Article” refers to The Articles: “A” & “An”. They are used to refer to something which is not necessarily unique. There may be more than one of them, but The Articles “A” (for Nouns beginning with a Consonant or Consonant Sound), or “An” (for Nouns that begin with a Vowel or a Vowel Sound) are used to refer to just one of those things: “A bike“, “An Apple“
This is in contrast to the “Definite Article” “The” — which is used to refer to a Noun of-which there is only one (or it is known which one is being referenced): “The GiveMeSomeEnglish!!! Website“, “The TOEFL Excellence Training System“, “The TOEFL Practice Test“ — Or to refer to a specific one, out of many possibilities: “The TOEFL Course that was made by GiveMeSomeEnglish!!!“, “The TOEFL Practice Test that actually gives you suggestions on how to improve“
- See Also: “Definite Article”
- Independent Clause — [PG] The Term “Independent Clause” is used to refer to a Clause which is a complete Sentence — even if it has only two Words. It only needs to contain one Subject, and one Verb.
Examples: “I teach.” — “I am ‘The Teacher'” — “My Students Learn English.” — “GiveMeSomeEnglish!!! is the best English website in the Universe.”
- Indirect Object — [PG] An Indirect Object is a Noun or Noun-Phrase which refers to something which is affected by the action of the Verb, but is not the Direct Object of the Sentence.
- See Also: “Direct Object”
- Indirect Speech — [DG] The Term “Indirect Speech” is simply another Term for “Reported Speech”. And although it would seem logical to use the Term “Indirect Speech”, as the opposite of “Direct Speech” — the Term “Reported Speech” more-accurately describes what it is — rather than “Indirect Speech”.
There-fore — in The Common Tongue — we use the Term Reported Speech.
- Infinitive Verb — [PG] The Term “Infinitive Verb” is used to refer to the form of a Verb in it’s NON-Conjugated form — like when that Verb does NOT represent the main “action” of the Sentence, but is actually the Subject or (an) Object of the Sentence.
The “Infinitive Form” of the Verb — is that-which does not refer to any time (Past, Present, Future). It is usually presented with the Particle “to”: “to hike”, “to speak”, “to swim”, “to dream” — or it can be in what we call the “Bare Infinitive” form. That is the Infinitive form of the Verb, sans the particle “to”: “If you want to Achieve Excellence On The TOEFL Exam, then you must actually study!” — (in that example, the verb in the sentence is “want”. “to Achieve” is in the “to + infinitive form”. And “study” is in the “Bare Infinitive” form.)
In many cases of using the Bare Infinitive form — the particle “to” should be included. But due to Common Usage, people have gotten used to NOT using it. However — with the Modal Verb “Must”, we never use it.
- Inflected — [DG] The Term “Inflected” is used to describe a Language which has “Inflections” — (basically ALL of them to some degree) — or to describe a Word which has been changed to reflect some function.
For example: When we change a Verb to show what time the action is taking-place in — the Verb has been “Inflected”. When we change a Noun to show multiplicity or possessiveness — the Noun has been “Inflected”.
- See Also: “Inflection”
- Informal — [NG] The Term “Informal” is not a Grammatical Term. It is a Rhetorical Term which is used to refer to speech or writing which is considered “normal” Colloquial speech which would be used in a relaxed, familiar, and “normal” situation.
This is as-opposed-to Formal speech or writing which would NOT be familiar or Colloquial but would be of a quality reserved for exclusive situations where one is expected to behave in a very specific “form” — for example: When one meets The Queen of England… oops… The King of England.
- See Also: Formal
- Interjection — [DG] The Term “Interjection” is used to refer to a Word or Phrase which is “Interjected” into a conversation. In-other-words — it is a Statement which is not asked for, or expected — but is given as a way of expressing one’s thoughts, feelings, or opinions on some matter or situation.
An Interjection can simply be a single Word: “What!?!?!”, “Shit!”, “Awesome!”
You can see by the examples that Interjections are usually the types of Expressions that would be written with an Exclamation Mark, as they are often emotional outbursts. But they can also be very calmly stated Expressions as well.
- Interrogative Pronoun — [DG] The Term “Interrogative Pronoun” is used to refer to a Pronoun which is used to ask about (“Interrogate”) a Person or Object that we do not know about. Also — they are NOT the Personal or Demonstrative Pronouns.
The Personal Pronouns Are: I, Me, My, Mine, Myself — You, Your, Yours, Yourself — He, Him, His, Himself — She, Her, Hers, Herself — It, It’s Itself — We, Us, Our, Ours, Ourselves — They, Them, Their, Theirs, Themselves
(the Possessive Pronoun “It’s” [hyphenated] is not recognized in Traditional Grammar. Instead, it is considered to be the Contraction of “it is” — which is illogical & stupid. “It’s” — as a Possessive Pronoun and NOT a Contraction — IS correctly recognized in The Grammar Of The Common Tongue)
The Demonstrative Pronouns Are: This, That, These, Those
The Interrogative Pronouns Are: Who, Whom, Whoever, Which, Whichever, What, Whatever
- Intransitive — [NG] The Term “Intransitive” — alone — is not a Grammatical Term. But it is used in Grammar to refer to Verbs which — as they say in Traditional Grammar — “Do not need a Direct Object or Objects“. However — the way that this is said is yet another Stupid & Obtuse way of describing something which should be FAR more logically described, as there is no “taking” involved.
To Know & Comprehend why the Word “Intransitive” is used — it should, FIRST, be Known & Comprehended what the Word “Transitive” means. Because “Intransitive” simply means: “Not Transitive”. There is no “Transference” of effect or result of the Verb to any Object.
So — in Grammar — A “Transitive Verb” is one with-which some sort of “Action” is done BY the “doer” TO the Object. Therefore — there is a “Transference” of the effect of whatever the Verb IS. Thus — “Transitive”. The “doer” of the “action” “Transfers” the effect of the “action” to the Object.
- Ironic — [NG] The Term “Ironic” is not a Grammatical Term. It is simply the Adjective form of the Rhetorical Term “Irony”.
For Example: When Hillary Clinton says that “no politician should be above the law“ — many people would say “That’s Ironic” because she’s a politician, and she is also one of the biggest criminals in the world, and has NEVER suffered any punishment for the horrible things that she has done.
So clearly she — the person who says that “no politician should be above the law” — is in fact, a politician who is clearly “above the law” — and fully intends on staying that way. So her Statement is a contradiction to the way she actually thinks, believes, and acts.
- See Also: “Irony”
- Irony — [NG] The Word “Irony” is not a Grammatical Term. It is a Rhetorical Term which is defined as being: “The quality of a Statement which is the opposite or very different than what is stated”. However — this does not describe any example of what is comprehended as Irony, and the above definition is more closely aligned to that of Sarcasm than Irony.
Furthermore — most examples of Irony are a contradiction between Actions & A Statement — rather than a Statement & Itself. (Also, no examples are ever given for the above definition — OR the example of the above definition do not actually fit the definition.)
A much more authentic and clearly comprehensible explanation of Irony is:
“The contradiction between the Statements and Actions of a person or group, which carry an almost opposite and therefore, sometimes, funny — but often repulsive result.”
For Example: When members or supporters of the fascistic organization called “Antifa” actually believe that they are fighting Fascism by acting EXACTLY like, and basically BEING the true Fascists, themselves.
Or when the Racist organization Black Lives Matter actually believe that they are fighting Racism by actually being COMPLETELY Racist in everything that they do… Even To Members Of Their Own RACE!!! (And, actually, though there is no such thing as “The Black Race” or “The White Race”. There is only “The Human Race”. So the Term “Racism”, itself, is Stupid & Obtuse)
Almost everything that these people do is an example of Irony.
They attack random citizens because they claim that those people are Fascist & Racist. But they are actually being Fascist & Racist when attacking those people. = Irony
These Fascist & Racist organizations also claim to hate The Police for the same reason as they hate everyone else. But when those Fascist & Racist organizations are attacking random citizens for being “Fascist & Racist”… and those people who are being attacked start fighting back to defend themselves from the Fascists & Racists who are attacking them… And because Antifa & their kind are all a bunch of f^ckin’ coward losers — they go running to The Police who they claim to hate — to DEMAND that The Police, that they hate so much, help defend them against the people who THEY were attacking. = Irony
This is actually, MANY levels of Irony. And if it were not for the fact that organizations like Antifa & Black Lives Matter are doing such INCREDIBLE amounts of damage to society… it would actually be funny, how Ironic they and their supporters are. But instead, they are just disgusting & repulsive. And that’s the truth.
- See Also: “Ironic”
- Irregular Noun — [DG] The Term “Irregular Noun” is used to refer to a Noun which uses a different Spelling for it’s Plural-Form — other than the “Regular” “-s” or “-es” Suffix. There-fore, it is considered “Irregular”.
However — even that Term is not correct. This is because “Irregular Plural” is a Phrasal-Adjective. And as-such — needs a Noun to describe. So — in The Grammar Of The Common Tongue — we use the Term “Irregular Plural-Form”: “This Noun has an ‘Irregular Plural Form’.”
- Irregular Verb — [DG & OB] The Term “Irregular Verb” is used to refer to a Verb which — when Conjugated — has a Spelling which is different than usually — thus, “Irregular”.
Although this is a common Grammatical Term in Traditional Grammar — it would be more correct to use the Term: “Irregular Conjugation” — as there is nothing “Irregular” about the “Verb” — only about the way that it is Conjugated.
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