English Grammatical Terms

Letter R

(PG = Prescriptive Grammar  —  DG = Descriptive Grammar)

(GL = Grammatical Lingo  —  OB = Obtuse  —  NG = Not Grammatical)

  • Received Pronunciation  —  [OB & NG]  The Term “Received Pronunciation” is an EXTREMELY Stupid & Obtuse Term — and is a PERFECT example of — not only, how the “Traditional System” of English Education is flawed.  But also — how so-called “British English” & the “English” culture no-longer has much of anything to do with “The English Language” that the majority of The World wants to learn.  And thus — the change of the name from “English”, to “The Common Tongue”.

This is because the Term “Received Pronunciation” is SUPPOSED to mean:  “The form of pronunciation of The English Language traditionally spoken by the educated classes of the south-east of England.” — which makes no sense, considering the use of the Word “Received”.

What The Term SHOULD Mean Is:  The  particular Dialect of English Pronunciation that a person “Receives” — based-upon, either:  Where they grew up — or Where (or by-whom) they “Received” their education in English.

But — until the form of “English” known-as “The Common Tongue” becomes more popular — the Term “Received Pronunciation” is virtually useless (beyond being used as a teaching-point — such-as was presented in this very description).

This is because — is said that:  A “Reciprocal Pronoun” is one that “has a Reciprocal Relationship”.  Relationship to what?  We can only assume that it is a relationship is between itself and another Pronoun.

The definition, then, says that there are only two Reciprocal Pronouns “One Another”“Each Other”

Okay…  That ALMOST makes sense.  Except “One Another” is not a Pronoun.  It is a Phrasal-Pronoun.  And the same is true with “Each Other”.

And because we already have all that we need to know about these “Phrasals” by simply Knowing that they are Phrasal-Pronouns — then — ultimately — the Term “Reciprocal Pronoun” has no practical use in The Common Tongue.

  • Redundant  —  [NG]  The Term “Redundant” — alone — is not a Grammatical Term.  However —  you can see it used throughout this Grammatical Glossary to refer to various Terms which somehow have the quality of Redundancy.

(to be) Redundant means:  To be superfluous;  Exceeding what is necessary;  Repetitive;  Needlessly wordy.

For Example:  The Corporate Slang Terms:  “Actionable Steps”“Action Steps” are completely Redundant Terms, because EVERY “Step” that one can take is “Actionable”.  There is no such thing as a “Non-Actionable Step”.  Therefore — one can just say “Step”

  • Reflexive Pronoun  —  [DG]  The Term “Reflexive Pronoun” is used to refer to a Pronoun which “Reflects” back onto the Subject of the Sentence.  It does this by using the Proper Pronoun to refer to the Subject — but then adds the Suffix “-Self” to the Pronoun:  Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, Themselves.

Reflexive Pronouns are used to show that the Subject of the Sentence is actually the one who/that receives “The Action/Result Of The Verb — and therefore — is both Subject & Object in the Sentence.

  • Register  —  [NG]  The Word “Register” — alone — is not a Grammatical Term.  However — when used in relation to Linguistics — it is used to refer to the WAY in-which someone says something;  Usually based on the particular situation or circumstances.  A person’s Register  indicates:  Mood, Attitude, Sarcasm, Excitement, etc..

To use a common Colloquial Expression to elucidate the Term“It is not What they said, but How they said it”  that conveys the important message.

It only exists in Traditional Grammar because of it’s opposite — “Irregular Noun”.  An Irregular Noun is one which has a different ending for the Plural-Form than the traditional “-s” or “-es” Suffix.  So a “Regular Noun” is one which has the typical or “Regular” “-s” or “-es” Suffix.

It only exists in Traditional Grammar because of it’s opposite — “Irregular Verb”.  An Irregular Verb is one which has a different Conjugation than those typical for “Regular Verbs”.

For Example:  The “Irregular Verb” will have a different spelling of the Word — rather than the “Regular” “-ed” Suffix for the Past-Tense of the Verbs“Swim”  ⇒  “Swam”  (Instead of “Swimmed”)

  • Regulations Of Grammar  —  [PG]  The Term “Regulations Of Grammar” is one that is not used in Traditional Grammar.  This is because it is not recognized by those who work within the teaching of Traditional Grammar that there is such a thing — even when access to the information which clearly shows that distinct difference between the Words “Rules” & “Regulations”.


— A “Rule” is a device — whether tangible or intangible — by-which some other thing — tangible or intangible — is measured.

— A “Regulation” Is specific form of limitation which is put into place to “Regulate” (control) how sometime is or is-not done.


In The Grammar Of The Common Tongue [CTG] — The “Regulations Of Grammar” are that which make up “Prescriptive Grammar”.  This is the Grammar which must be followed — as “Prescribed” — otherwise the communication will be broken or severely altered.

And — All so-called “Relative Clauses” are Either “Defining” or “Non-Defining” Relative Clauses.  But — because there is also no such thing as a Defining or Non-Defining Clause which is NOT “Relative” — then there is absolutely NO reason for the classification of a “Relative Clause”.  Because ANY Clause which is a Defining Clause or a Non-Defining Clause is “Relative” to the Noun that it is describing.

Therefore — the Term “Relative Clause” is Stupid & Obtuse, and is a perfect example of Grammatical Dross.

Relative Pronouns only exist with Defining Relative Clause — not with Non-Defining Relative Clauses.

However — None of this information will actually help you to formulate Sentences and communicate in English.  This information is only relevant if you need to take a test and one of the questions is about what a “Relative Pronoun” is…  Therefore — it is essentially useless Grammatical Dross.

This is also true because the Term Relative Pronoun is also Grammatical Dross.

  • Reported Speech  —  [PG]  The Term “Reported Speech” is to refer to the form of writing used when “Reporting” ABOUT the “Speech” of another person — but not directly saying exactly the words that the person said.  It is Paraphrased Speech that essentially has the same message — or is a Summary of what the other person said.

Saying exactly what the person said is called “Direct Speech”.

In the written form — Reported Speech does not use Quotation Marks [ ] — but instead uses the Conjunction “That” in-front-of the Paraphrased Summary.


Original Statement:  GiveMeSomeEnglish!!! Is The Freakin’ Bomb!!!”

Direct Speech:  The Teacher said, GiveMeSomeEnglish!!! Is The Freakin’ Bomb!!!”

Reported Speech:  The Teacher said that GiveMeSomeEnglish!!! was a very good website.

  • Resultative Adjective  —  [DG]  The Term “Resultative Adjective” is to refer to an Adjective that is place after a Noun, to show the “Result” of the action of the Verb. The Adjective can be in it’s base form, or in the Phrase- or Phrasal-Form.


Base Form:  “That was Awesome!”

Phrase-Form:  “He actually makes Grammar interesting in a way that I never thought possible.”

Phrasal-Form:  “Wow!  He got Beat-Up Pretty-Good.”

  • Retained Object  —  [OB]  The Term “Retained Object” is simply THE SAME Object in both a Passive or Active Sentence.  There-fore — the Term “Retained Object” is Stupid & Obtuse, as it will not help you to Learn or Better Communicate in English.
  • Rhetorical Question  —  [NG]  The Term “Rhetorical Question” is not a Grammatical Term.  It is a Rhetorical Term which is used to describe a Question that is asked — not because a person expects or even wants an answer to the Question — but is asking it as a way to get the other person to think about the situation, and to persuade the other person’s thinking.

A Rhetorical Question is also usually asked in a sarcastic way.

“Oh great!  Now Joe Biden is going to make hard-working Americans pay for the billions of dollars of Student-Loan debt.  How many more disasters do you think he can create before the end of his term?

The purpose of the above Rhetorical Question is not to find out how many disasters the other may think will happen — but as a way of saying that:  He has created so MANY disasters already, that he will probably just continue to create more and more disasters until he either dies or is thrown out of office.

  • Rhetorical Term  —  [NG]  The Term “Rhetorical Term” is not a Grammatical Term.  It is a Term which is used to describe a Term which is referring to “Rhetoric”;  The way that people use some device of Language.

For Example:  A “Rhetorical Question” IS a Question, based upon the way it is formed.  But it is not used to ask for an answer to that Question — which is exactly what Questions are for.

Another Example (which doesn’t actually use the Word “Rhetorical”):  SarcasmSarcasm is used to imply one idea, opinion, or truth — by saying something which is actually the opposite of what is being implied.  That is a device of “Rhetoric”.  The person using it is doing-so with a specific purpose which is NOT that which is intended by the “Rules & Regulations” for that particular Grammatical Device or Grammatical Structure.

Therer-fore — the Term Rhotic “R” is Redundant.  Because it literally means:  The Letter “R” which has the qualities of sounding like The Letter “R”.

The Term “Rhotic” (having the qualities of The Letter “R”) is used to describe other Letters, but it is wrong.  This is because those Letters are either pronounced wrong — or, in the case of so-called “Rhotic Vowels” — they are only considered “Rhotic”…  BECAUSE THERE IS AN “R” DIRECTLY AFTER IT!!!…  Therefore — Stupid & Obtuse.

The only slightly beneficial use of the Word “Rhotic” is in the Term Non-Rhotic “R” — to describe the way that British people, and those who have been taught British-English, strangely do NOT pronounce The Letter “R” at the end of Words.

  • Rhyme  —  [NG]  The Term Rhyme is not a Grammatical Term.  It is a Literary Term which is used to describe how two Words sound similar to each other.  Words that Rhyme are used in Poetry and musical Lyrics — as well as other forms of artistic and creative writing.

In the phrase:  “Cat in the Hat”  — the Words “Cat” and “Hat” Rhyme. — due to both having the same “at” combination.

  • Root-Word  —  [PG]  The Term “Root-Word” is used to refer to the base Unit of any Word which also has Pre-Fixes, Suffixes or even other Root-Words added to it to make a Compound-Word.  To use a Mathematical Term to describe it — The Root-Word is the “Lowest Common Denominator“;  It can not be broken-down any further.

For Example:  In the Word “Prescription”“Pre-“ is a Prefix“-tion” is the Suffix, and “Script” is the Root-Word.

  • Rule  —  [DG]  In Traditional Grammar [TG] — The use of the Word “Rule” is wrong.  In The Grammar Of The Common Tongue [CTG] the Word “Rule” is used to refer to those instructions on how to use certain aspects of Grammar which CAN and often ARE not followed or are altered.  And yet, the communication can still be clear.  they are “guidelines”.  Un-like with the “Regulations”.  The Word “Rule” — In The Grammar Of The Common Tongue Grammar — is used correctly, based upon it’s TRUE Meaning.
  • Rules Of Grammar  —  [DG]  The Term “Rules Of Grammar” is one that is misconstrued by nearly every single person on the planet who has read, heard, or uses this Term.  This is because they do not comprehend or they simply ignore (an example of the true meaning of the word “ignorance”) the actual meaning of the word “Rule”.


— A “Rule” is a device — whether tangible or intangible — by-which some other thing — tangible or intangible — is measured.

— What most people THINK a “Rule” IS — is actually the definition of the Word “Regulation”See This Article For A More Thorough ExplanationSee This Article For A More Simplified & Elegant Comprehension.


In Traditional Grammar [TG] — The “Rules Of Grammar” are…  EVERYTHING…  All “Rules & Regulations”…  All jumbled-together in one big mess that is then mistakenly thought of as “Rules”…  (Of-which only a very small amount of them actually are.)

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