English Grammatical Terms

Letter S

(PG = Prescriptive Grammar  —  DG = Descriptive Grammar)

(GL = Grammatical Lingo  —  OB = Obtuse  —  NG = Not Grammatical)

  • Sarcasm  —  [NG]  The Term “Sarcasm” — alone — is not a Grammatical Term.  The Word “Sarcasm” is used to refer to a “bitter” or even sometimes “comedic” way of speaking which is used to ironically convey some information in-order-to criticize or mock something.

This is usually done by saying something which is very different than — or literally the opposite to — the truth, or to the way that someone thinks/feels about what they are saying.   This is done by speaking in a loud & boisterous way — to express that what they are saying is “Stupid” and they actually think the opposite — or at-least very differently.

Sarcasm CAN be used in the written-form, but it is much harder to convey.  This is because the loud & boisterous use of the voice is the main tool for indicating that one is being “Sarcastic”.

In the written form — it usually incorporates the addition of emojis to convey the feeling or attitude.  Or — one can use a Phrase which indicates Sarcasm such as:  “Yeah Right!” or “Oh Sure!”

  • Satire  —  [NG]  The Term “Satire” is not a Grammatical Term.  It is a Literary Term used to refer to a piece of writing that is in the Style of “Satire” — that which ridicules the topic or subject of the writing — usually for the purpose of causing change about that subject.

(The use of the Word “Subject”, above is not the same as the Grammatical Term — which is the “Subject” of a Sentence — but is the Subject [the main topic, person(s), or thing being written-about] of an entire piece of writing.)

  • Schwa  —  [DG]  The Term “Schwa” Is used to refer to the sound of Un-Stressed Vowels, when they have been diminished so-much that they no-longer sound the way they are “supposed to”, according to their descriptions in Traditional Grammar.

 

For Example:  We say that the Word “The” — alone — is pronounced with the “e” sounding like “The Short Letter U”“Thuh”.

However — when we actually put the Word “The” into a Sentence — and it is in-front-of a Word which starts with a Consonant or Consonant-Sound — then the “e” of the Word “The” almost disappears.  It barely sounds like a “grunt”.  But this is only ONE of THREE Schwa Sounds.

In Traditional GrammarThe Schwa is represented by this symbol:  ə

In The Grammar Of The Common Tongue — we recognize that there are THREE Schwa Sounds:
.

— The “I-Schwa”ə(ɪ)

— The “U-Schwa”ə(ʌ)

— The “TRUE-Schwa”ə

  • Second Conditional  —  [DG]  The Term “Second Conditional” is used to refer to the type of Conditional Sentence that is used to talk about if some “condition” were different than what it is / was / will be — then there would be some other condition than what is likely in the future or true in the present.

“If I still had a metabolism like I did in my twenties, I would still eat ramen noodles three times a day.”

“If Monica Bellucci told me that she wanted to spend the night with me, I might end up having a real dilemma on my hands (as I am a married man.)”

“If the world had just listened to Nikola Tesla and Viktor Schauberger, we could be living in a paradise by now!”

 

To Illustrate:

I — who am writing this Sentence represents the “Speaker”.  So I am the “First Person”.  “I” is a “First-Person Pronoun”, and the Verb must Agree with that Pronoun, in-order-to be Grammatically Correct.
.

You — who are reading this Sentence represent the “Audience”.  You are the “Second Person”.  “You” is a “Second-Person Pronoun”, and the Verb must Agree with that Pronoun, in-order-to be Grammatically Correct.
.

If I were writing or speaking to You about someone else, like “Traditional English Teachers” — then They are the Subject.  And since They are not You or I (the “Speaker” or the “Audience”) — then They are the “Third Person”They is a “Third-Person Pronoun”, and the Verb must Agree with that Pronoun, in-order-to be Grammatically Correct.

 

Examples Of Pronoun / Verb Agreement Between 1st, 2nd, & 3rd Person:

1st:  “I Am

2nd:  “You Are

3rd:  “They Are

  • Second-Person Pronoun  —  [PG]  The Term “Second-Person Pronoun” is used to refer to any Pronoun which represents, and is in the correct form for, the “Second Person” of a Sentence.

In The Grammar Of The Common TongueThe Sentence Is The Base Grammatical Structure.

A Sentence Fragment could be because of simply making a mistake.  But Sentence Fragments are most-commonly used in Colloquial speech and/or that of un-educated Cultural or Sub-Culture Slang speaking which eliminates Words (like Auxiliary Verbs) which would be necessary for the Sentence to be Grammatically Correct — but is actually done on-purpose because…  “That’s just how we say it.”

 

Examples:  “You Crazy!”, “We Cool Like That”, “We Out!”

The Above Is True In Both Traditional Grammar [TG] & The Grammar Of The Common Tongue [CTG]

 

Big Deal!”  ⇒  Big Fuckin’ Deal!”

Hand Over All Your Money” ⇒  Hand All Your Money Over To Me”

  • “Short A” Pronunciation  —  [DG]  The Term “Short A” or “Short Letter A” is used to refer to one of the main sounds that The Letter “A” can be pronounced as.  And although there are actually THREE different ways that “The Short A” can be pronounced — the most common examples are the way that it sounds in the Words“Plan”, “Snail”, “Cat”

However — the “Short A” is actually pronounced differently in all three of those examples.  They are called (in order)

The Short A / I-Schwa Diphthong

The Short A / U-Schwa Diphthong

The TRUE Short A

  • Short A / I-Schwa Diphthong  —  [DG]  The Term “Short A / I-Schwa Diphthong” is used to refer to one of three sounds of what — in Traditional Grammar — is referred-to as The Long A.

The Short A / I-Schwa Diphthong is the LEAST predominant of the “Short A Sounds” which can be clearly heard in-front of any Word where The Short Letter “A” is in-front-of The Letters “N” (Although The Short A / I-Schwa Diphthong occurs in-front-of other Letters as well.)

 

Phonetic Spelling = “AA” (there is not-yet a proper Phonetic Spelling that would not cause con-fusion — and this is a sound which is automatically produced with these letter combinations so it is not necessary to TRY to do it)

 

Symbol In The International Phonetic Alphabet = There Is None

 

Symbol In The Phonetic Alphabet of The Common Tongue (the Symbols FROM The IPA which are used in The Common Tongue)æ
(there is not-yet a proper Phonetic Symbol that would not cause con-fusion — and this is a sound which is automatically produced with these letter combinations so it is not necessary to TRY to do it)

  • Short A / U-Schwa Diphthong  —  [DG]  The Term “Short A / U-Schwa Diphthong” is used to refer to one of three sounds of what — in Traditional Grammar — is referred-to as The Short A.

The Short A / U-Schwa Diphthong is the most predominant of the “Short A Sounds” which can be clearly heard in-front of any Word where The Short Letter “A” is in-front-of The Letter “M”(Although The Short A / U-Schwa Diphthong occurs in-front-of other Letters as well.)

 

Phonetic Spelling = “AA” (there is not-yet a proper Phonetic Spelling that would not cause con-fusion — and this is a sound which is automatically produced with these letter combinations so it is not necessary to TRY to do it)

 

Symbol In The International Phonetic Alphabet = There Is None

 

Symbol In The Phonetic Alphabet of The Common Tongue (the Symbols FROM The IPA which are used in The Common Tongue)æ
(there is not-yet a proper Phonetic Symbol that would not cause con-fusion — and this is a sound which is automatically produced with these letter combinations so it is not necessary to TRY to do it)

  • “Short E” Pronunciation  —  [DG]  The Term “Short E” or “Short Letter E” is used to refer to one of the two main sounds that The Letter “I” can be pronounced as (when it is not being pronounced like a completely separate Vowel).

The Short E Sound is best represented in the Word:  “Bet”Phonetic Spelling = “EH” / Symbol In The International Phonetic Alphabet = ɛ

  • “Short I” Pronunciation  —  [DG]  The Term “Short I” or “Short Letter I” is used to refer to one of the two main sounds that The Letter “I” can be pronounced as (when it is not being pronounced like a completely separate Vowel).

The Short I Sound is best represented in the Word: “Hit”Phonetic Spelling = “IH” / Symbol In The International Phonetic Alphabet = ɪ

  • “Short O” Pronunciation  —  [DG]  The Term “Short O” or “Short Letter O” is used to refer to one of the two main sounds that The Letter “O” can be pronounced as (when it is not being pronounced like a completely separate Vowel).

The Short O Sound is best represented in the Word:  “Top”Phonetic Spelling = “AH” / Symbol In The International Phonetic Alphabet = a

  • “Short U” Pronunciation  —  [DG]  The Term “Short O” or “Short Letter O” is used to refer to one of the two main sounds that The Letter “O” can be pronounced as (when it is not being pronounced like a completely separate Vowel).

The Short O Sound is best represented in the Words:  “Shut”, “Up”, “Dummy”Phonetic Spelling = “UH” / Symbol In The International Phonetic Alphabet = ʌ

For Example:  “Learning English Grammar with GiveMeSomeEnglish!!! is like a stroll in the park on a beautiful Spring day.”
(it’s true)  😉

  • Singular  —  [NG]  The Term “Singular” — alone — is not a Grammatical Term.  However — it is used to refer to the form of a Noun which represents only one of that thing.
  • Singular Noun  —  [PG]  The Term “Singular Noun” is used to refer to a Noun which represents only one of that thing.
  • Slang  —  [DG]  The Term “Slang” is used to refer to the Topic of Slang-Terms, in general.  It is also very common for the Term “Slang-Term” to be shortened to simply:  “Slang”.
  • Slang-Term  —  [DG]  The Term “Slang-Term” is used to refer to the WordsTerms which are used with a different meaning that the true Definition or used with a different intent than the true Usage of the Word or Term.

Slang-Terms are also usually unique within certain cultures, or sub-cultures.

 

Cultures:  Black People, in general — (mostly in America & Western-Europe) — have almost an entire, ever-changing version of The English Language, which seems to be almost nothing but Slang!  They use Words & Phrases that other cultures simply do not comprehend.  And even when those other cultures DO learn the Meaning & Usage of those Terms — in most cases, they simply do not use them.

But in the cases that other cultures DO start to use some Slang-Term which originated within “Black Culture” — (usually because of the so-called “Hip-Hop Culture”) — by then, “Black People” are no-longer using those particular Slang-Terms(Because they simply aren’t cool anymore, once other people [specifically: “White People] start using them.)

The same is true for any racial culture — but “Black People” seem to be the most prolific creators and users of Slang throughout the world.  They are also the most influential in the spreading of Slang-Terms to other racial cultures.

 

Sub-Culture:  First of all — the Term “Sub-Culture” can literally be ANY group of ANY size which exists within another Culture.  Like “Rave Culture”, “Skateboard Culture”, “Bird-Watching Culture”, “The Culture Of People Who Actually Read My Glossary Of Grammatical Terms” — they ALL have their OWN Terms which are not used (or rarely used) outside of that specific sub-culture.

 

However — there are also “Slang-Terms” which do escape the Sub-Cultures, and Cultures — and become prolifically used within the grand culture of the overall “Human Population”.  Probably the most famous of these terms is the word “Cool” — when used to refer to something which one finds to be:  “fascinating”, “interesting”, & “intriguing”.  This is because the word “Cool” ACTUALLY means “slightly cold”.  But that is not how it is meant when people use it as a “Slang-Term”.

  • “Soft C” Pronunciation  —  [DG]  The Term “Soft C” or “Soft Letter C” is used to refer to one of the two main sounds that The Letter “C” can be pronounced as (when it is not in combination with other Letters that change it’s Pronunciation).

The Soft C Sound is exactly the same as the sound of The Letter “S”Phonetic Spelling = “S” / Symbol In The International Phonetic Alphabet = s

  • Blog Post  —  coming soon!
  • Pronunciation Lesson  —  coming soon!
  • Video Lesson  —  coming soon!
  • See Also:  “Hard C” Pronunciation
  • “Soft G” Pronunciation  —  [DG]  The Term “Soft G” or “Soft Letter G” is used to refer to one of the two main sounds that The Letter “G” can be pronounced as (when it is not in combination with other Letters that change it’s Pronunciation).

The Soft G Sound is exactly the same as the sound of The Letter “J”Phonetic Spelling = “DG” / Symbol In The International Phonetic Alphabet =

  • Speech  —  [NG]  The Word “Speech” — alone — is not a Grammatical Term.  It is simply a Word which refers to the subject of “Speaking”.
  • Spelling  —  [GL]  The Term “Spelling” is used to refer to the proper order of the Letters in a Word.  When we write a Word by putting it’s individual Letters in the proper order — we are “Spelling” the Word.

 

For Example:  “A Frontal Lobotomy”  ⇒  “A Bottle In Front Of Me”  —  “Hi!  How are yuh?”  ⇒  “How, high are yuh?”  “Take Me Home I’m Drunk”  ⇒  “Take Me Drunk, I’m Home”.

Or one that was created by “The Teacher” from the common phrase:  “It cures what ails you.”  ⇒  “Ale’s what cures you.”  😉

They can, and often are accidental.  “The Teacher’s” mother used to make:  “Chicken Cacciatore”  when he was younger, and he often would accidentally call it:  “Kitchen Chakatory”  (Of course, that one is not as funny.  But it is still a Spoonerism.)

  • State Of Being  —  [DG]  The Term “State Of Being” is used to refer to one of the two things that Verbs represent:  “Actions” & “States Of Being”.  A State Of Being literally means “The State (condition) That Some Being (person/animal/thing) Is/Was/May Be In”.  The Verbs that represent States Of Being are called “Stative Verbs”.

As such — “Stative Verbs” do not actually function as Verbs — but instead — function as Adjectives.  This is not recognized in Traditional Grammar — probably because they are the same form as Verbs in their Past-Tense.

— (to) Amaze = Verb“The Magician Amazed The Audience.”  (Past-Tense Verb Form)

— Happy = Adjective — “I Am Happy.”  (Adjective)

— (to be) Amazed = Functions EXACTLY The Same As An Adjective“I Am Absolutely Amazed.”  (Past-Tense Verb Form Functioning As An Adjective)

In Legal Terminology — a Statement is a very specific thing.  But that has nothing to do with Grammar.

  • Stative Verb  —  [PG]  The Term “Stative Verb” is used to refer to a Verb which describes a “State Of Being” rather than an “Action”.  As such — Stative Verbs are actually Adjectival.  But this is not recognized in Traditional Grammar, and I (“The Teacher”) have never “heard” ANYONE else mention this anywhere..  EVER!

That is why — in The Grammar Of The Common Tongue — I often refer to these as “Adjectival Verbs”.  Because they are not acting as a Verbs.  Tell me if you can see any difference….

Adjective:  “the shirt is blue”  —  “the red car”  —  “That looks horrible

Stative Verb:  “the man is tired  — “the excited child”  —  “He looks wasted

  • Stressed  —  [NG]  The Word “Stressed”, by itself is NOT a Grammatical Term — but is used in-reference-to the syllables of a Word which are Stressed.
  • Stressed Syllable  —  [DG]  The Term “Stressed Syllable”, is used to refer to the Syllable of a Word which has more emphasis when it is pronounced.  This Syllable is usually pronounced louder, and the Vowel sound is more “True”Un-Stressed Syllables are NOT given as much emphasis;  Are pronounced more quietly;  And the Vowel sound often turns into a Schwa Sound.

This is purely a result of Common Usage — and the fact that it is simply easier to pronounce the Word with the particular Letter being Stopped, rather than pronounced.

For Example:  The Letter “T” at the end of the Word “It”.  When a Native English speaker says “I Like It” — the “t” is usually not fully pronounced.  It sounds more like:  “I Like i’…” — Almost as if you were hearing a recording, and someone shut it off after the “i” sound but before the “t” sound.

 

Example:  “I think that Bob is a little bit crazy.”  — In this Sentence (which consists of only one Clause)“Bob” is the Subject.  The Name “Bob” is a Noun.

 

Example:  “I think that maybe Bob’s whole family might just be a little bit crazy.”  —  In this Sentence“Bob’s whole family” is the Subject.  The Phrase “Bob’s whole family” is a Noun-Phrase.

In other situations — the Subject can actually (technically) be a Verb-Phrase (in form) — but as the Subject is referring to the “Doing-of” that action — but is not the “Action Of The Sentence.  Therefore — it is FUNCTIONING AS a Noun-Phrase.

 

Example:  “I like to go skiing with Bob and his crazy family.”  —  In this Sentence“to go skiing” is the Subject.  The Phrase “to go skiing” is technically an Infinitive Verb-Phrase — but since it is acting as the Subject of the Sentence — then it is acting as an Abstract Noun-Phrase — while the word “Like” is the Main Verb of the Sentence.

  • Subjuntive Verb-Phrase / Phrasal-Verb  —  [DG]  The Term “Subjunctive Verb-Phrase” or “Subjunctive Phrasal-Verb” is used to refer to the use of a Verb-Phrase or Phrasal-Verb which is used to refer to what the speaker hopes, wishes, expects, requests, or demands that the Object of a Sentence “Do” — or what will happen TO or FOR the Object.

The Subjunctive Verb-Phrase/Phrasal-Verb is always preceded by the Conjunction “That” — and the Verb-Phrase or Phrasal-Verb is always in the Infinitive form, sans the Particle “To”

 

For Example:  “I hope that the legal department will approve the documents I sent.”

 

In Traditional Grammar — the “Subjunctive Verb-Phrase / Phrasal-Verb” is sometimes described as a Verb-Tense — but it is not being used as a Verb in the Sentence — so that is not correct.  It is functioning as an Abstract Noun-Phrase to refer to the “thing” that is hoped-for, requested, demanded, etc..

It is also common in Traditional Grammar to use the Word “Subjunctive” — alone — as if that was the whole Term.  But this is also not correct, as the Word “Subjunctive” is an Adjective — and-so — must have a Noun to Agree-With.

The “Subordinate Clause” is often referred-to as a “Dependent Clause”.

  • Subordinating Conjunction  —  [PG]  The Term “Subordinating Conjunction” is the type of Conjunction which is place before a Subordinate Clause — and which indicates the condition of the Subordinate Clause (Comparison, Contrast, Location in Time, Location in Place, Reason, etc.).
  • Suffix  —  [PG] The Term “Suffix” is used to refer to a Complex Grammatical Element which is “fixed” (attached) to the end (“Su-” from “Sub” = Below, After, Lower) of a Word — or sometimes even another Suffix (if there are more than one suffixes attached to the Root-Word).

Suffixes usually have a Adjectival function — or serve to completely change the type of Grammatical Unit that the Word is  (i.e.  Changing a Verb into a Noun, or a Noun into an Adjective, etc.).

For Example:  The Word “Realization” has two Suffixes.  The Root-Word is “Real”that which IS;  someone which is “True”, “Exists”;  is not “fantasy”.  The Suffix “-ize” means:  to make something to be whatever the Root-Word represents(to make “Real” — usually in one’s mind).  And the Suffix “-ation” always means or represents:  “Action”.

So…  The Word “Realization” means:  The action of making something “Real” (whether in body or in mind).  This is it’s true Meaning.  And knowing the Meaning of the Root-Word and the Meaning or Function of the Suffix — we, then, do not need a dictionary to “Realize” this.  😉

  • Summary  —  [NG] The Term “Summary” is not a Grammatical Term.  It is a Literary Term used to refer to a Paraphrased reduction of a larger piece of information.  A Summary is used to condense some larger piece of information and re-state the most important points.  A Summary is usually given at the end of a Speech or some larger piece of informational writing.
  • Blog Post  —  coming soon!
  • Grammar Lesson  —  coming soon!
  • Pronunciation Lesson  —  coming soon!
  • Video Lesson  —  coming soon!
  • See Also:  “Superlative Adjective”
  • Superlative Adjective  —  [PG] The Term “Superlative Adjective” is use to refer to the type of Adjective which describes the “Most”, “Least”, or Greatest-Least Degree-of whatever the Adjective describes.

Superlative Adjectives are formed by adding the “-est” / “-st” Suffix to the Word — or by using the Adjective with the addition of the Words “Least” or “Most” — but never a combination of the two.

 

Examples:  Biggest, Finest, Most Amazing, Least Disappointing

 

For Words that have only only 1 or 2 Syllables — one can use either the “-est” / “-st” Suffix OR the Words “Least” or “Most”

For Words that have MORE than 2 Syllables — one MUST use the Words “Least” or “Most” — not the “-est” / “-st” Suffix

 

For Example:  “Shit”, “Piss”, “Bitch”, “Fuck”, “Bastard”, “Cunt”, “Dick”, and sometimes “Hell” & “Damn”

So…  A Syllable is ANY single, & distinct sound with-in a Word — which USUALLY contains at least one Vowel — but, sometimes, consists-of only a Consonant or Consonant-Combination.

Examples:

The Word “English” contains 2 Syllables:  “Ing-Glish”

The Word “Tasks” ALSO contains 2 Syllables:  “Tas-Ks”

In Traditional Grammar — they would say that the Word “Tasks” only has 1 Syllable because there is only 1 Vowel.  This makes is LITERALLY impossible to pronounce it according to those “Rules”.  Trying to say it REALLY REALLY fast does not change that.

However — if you simply say the Word — it is clear that the sound of the “-ks” ending is a separate and distinct sound.  AND — by KNOWING this — and NOT pretending that there is only 1 Syllable — the Word becomes MUCH easier to pronounce.  And that is only 1 example of why The Common Tongue is FAR better than Traditional Grammar.  😎

  • Symbol-Form  —  [DG]  The Term “Symbol-Form” is used in-reference-to Numbers when they are NOT written-out by their Names — but are, instead, written using the “Symbol-Forms”:

“1, 2, 3” — rather than — “One, Two, Three”

 

When Numbers are in their “Symbol-Form” — they are one of the Base Grammatical Elements.

When Numbers are in their “Word-Form” — they are one of the Base Grammatical Units.

  • Symbol Of Punctuation  —  [PG]  The Term “Symbol Of Punctuation” is used to refer to — exactly as the Term says — a “Symbol” of “Punctuation”;  The actual “Symbol” — rather than the Term which refers to it.

The most common Symbols Of Punctuation are:  The Comma [ , ]  —  The Period [ . ]  — The Question-Mark [ ? ]

  • Synonym  —  [DG]  The Term “Synonym” is used to refer-to Words that have a similar meaning to a particular Word.  In Traditional Grammar — the Term “Synonym” is described as meaing:  “Similar or The Same”.  However — almost no Words have the “Same” meaning as another Word.  And so — this is yet another area where the “Traditional English Education System” & The “Teachers” who teach it, have utterly ruined the Knowledge & Comprehension of Words, Names, Terms, Phrases, & “Phrasals”.

This is because they don’t teach Synonyms as “Similar”.  They teach them as being “The Same”.  And even if they do SAY that they are “Similar” — they do not bother to teach the difference between them.  And so — people end-up thinking that two or more related yet very-different & unique Words have the same meaning…  They do not!

 

For Example:   “Great”, “Excellent”, “Super”, “Amazing”

All of those Words are taught as meaning essentially the same thing:  “Very Good”.  However it is exactly their Essence (the Root-Word of “Essentially”) which is the thing that makes each of them so different.  It is only how the Words are USED — not their Meaning — which is similar.

“Great” = Very Large / Substantial.  (Something Being “Very Large or Substantial” is not always “Very Good”)

“Excellent” = Having The Qualities Or Results Of Having Excelled From A Previous State(This is exactly why I say “Have An Excellent Day” instead of “Have A Great Day!”.  I want people to have a day in-which they become & do better than they were or did before.  Not to have a “Very Large” day.  That makes no sense.)

“Super” = Above / Over  (Being “Above” or “Over” someone or something is only “Abstractly” a “Very Good” thing.  And it is not always true.)

“Amazing” = Having The Qualities Or Characteristics Of Causing Amazement  (It is almost MORE common, in these present times, for someone to be “Amazed” at something that is “Bad” than at something “Very Good”)

 

So you can and WILL see (if you follow the system of The Common Tongue) that almost all Synonyms are only “Synonymous” (being “Similar”) in their Common Usage — not in their TRUE Meaning

 

“Words Matter.  And the Words That You Use CREATE Matter…  There-fore — Know The Words That You Use Before You Use Them”  😉
.

~The Teacher

The more-common Grammatical Term“Sentence Structure” is referring to Syntax

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